According to the data in Figure 16.8a on page 405 of your textbook, what solid waste was recycled more in 2005 than it was incinerated or disposed of in the landfill?

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Final Exam Chapter 1-18

Part 1 of 1 – 94.0/ 100.0 Points

Question 1 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following is the best definition of a biome?

A.A distinct aquatic ecosystem, surrounded by wetlands and terrestrial upland.
B.A large distinct terrestrial region similar climate, soil, organisms, regardless of its global location.
C.One of several types of forests occurring across the globe.
D.A natural association that consists of all the populations of different species that live and interact together within an area at the same time.

Question 2 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which set of three parameters has the MOST effect on biome distributions?

A.latitude, longitude, precipitation
B.precipitation, longitude, temperature
C.temperature, latitude, climate
D.latitude, precipitation, temperature

Question 3 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which zone of the lake is indicated by the letter “A” in the diagram shown?


Question 4 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following BEST defines ecosystem services?

A.Important environmental benefits provided by ecosystems
B.Environmental services that humans invest in conserving ecosystems
C.Environmental activities that are unique to each ecosystem or biome
D.Economic use of ecosystems as sinks

Question 5 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
In order for the growth rate to remain constant what must happen to the birth rate?

A.It must equal zero
B.It must decline
C.It needs to be less than emigration
D.It must equal the death rate

Question 6 of 50 0.0/ 2.0 Points
What is the cause of global human population growth over the last 200 years?

A.Higher birth rate
B.Higher fecundity rate
C.Increase in immigration.
D.Lower death rate

Question 7 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What is life expectancy?

A.Maximum life span that an individual of a given species could reach.
B.Number of individuals in a population that survive in a given year.
C.Number of years an individual of a certain age will probably live.
D.Probability that an individual will survive infancy.

Question 8 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following BEST describes an urban brownfield?

A.Vacant house lots that are overgrown with weeds and vegetation.
B.Community gardens established by neighborhood organizations.
C.Meadows that are earmarked for industrial development.
D.Abandoned factories that may be contaminated from past uses.

Question 9 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
The global distillation effect occurs when:

A.certain molecules in the atmosphere convert solar radiation to heat.
B.volatile chemicals emitted in warm areas move to cooler latitudes.
C.ozone in the upper atmosphere is destroyed, allowing more UV radiation to reach the planet.
D.volatile organic compounds react in the presence of UV radiation to produce ozone.

Question 10 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Sources of air pollution include all of the following EXCEPT:

A.smoke from forest fires
B.exhaust from tailpipes of cars
C.gases released during volcanic eruptions exceptions, all of the above are sources of air pollution.

Question 11 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Why is industrial smog usually worse in the winter?

A.Cold temperatures prevent the dissipation of pollutants.
B.Heat domes form, holding pollutants close to the ground.
C.Pollutants react with ice crystals, forming ozone.
D.Combustion of household fuels is higher.

Question 12 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What has been the major success of the Clean Air Act?

A.Higher fuel efficiencies in cars and power plants.
B.An increased focus on alternative sustainable energy sources.
C.Significant decreases in emissions of nitrogen oxides.
D.Significantly less air pollution.

Question 13 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
You are travelling as part of a work assignment and your plane crashes. You are able to climb up to a ridge top and get a cellphone signal. You describe your surroundings to the operator: “I have travelled through wet boggy areas and I am worried about hypothermia. The tallest plant I saw was less than a foot. There are no trees in sight and the only animals I have seen are lemmings, rabbits, and swarms of mosquitos.” What biome are you most likely in?

C.tropical rainforest
D.temperate rainforest

Question 14 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
You have been hired to research suggest solutions to the problem of urban sprawl in your local area of the United States. Using Portland, Oregon as a model, what should you suggest?

A.Compact development which includes multiple unit residential buildings.
B.Development of suburbs as opposed to urban brownfields which are environmentally contaminated.
C.Public transportation that is convenient and connects people with shopping and employment.
D.A and C
E.All of the above.

Question 15 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
A survey of toxic PCBs in breast milk of women from the Yukon shows geographic variation. Northern areas are less populated but breast milk samples show higher levels of PCBs than southern areas that are more urban. What would be the most reasonable hypothesis based on what scientists know about air pollution?

A.Global distillation effect is responsible for the difference in PCB levels.
B.Chemical concentration in fat occurs at greater rates of PCBs in Inuit women due to genetics.
C.Regulations on air pollution are stricter in southern urban areas of the Yukon leading to the difference in PCB levels.
D.Chemicals from factories enter the air in colder climates and move to warmer latitudes causing the difference in PCB.

Question 16 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Biologists who study plants growing high in the Alps found that plants adapted to cold-mountain conditions migrated up the peaks as fast as 3.7 m per decade apparently in response to global warming. Assuming the same trend continues at the same rate and the plants are currently at 1028m, at what altitude should the plants be found in 20 years?

D.They would not be found since they have been pushed to extinction.

Question 17 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What is a rain shadow?

A.The silhouette of mountains as the sun passes from east to west.
B.The shade on the ground produced by clouds that threaten rain.
C.The dry land on the side of the mountains away from the prevailing wind.
D.The lessening of a chance of precipitation on any given day due to dry air at equator.

Question 18 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What causes ozone depletion?

A.Flying airplanes especially at high altitudes.
B.Combustion of a sulfur containing fuel like coal.
C.CFCs leaking from old refrigerators and air conditioners.
D.Deforestation especially in mountainous regions.

Question 19 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT an effect of acid deposition?

A.mutations and skin cancer
B.decreased hatching success in some birds
C.forest decline
D.destruction of monuments and buildings

Question 20 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
All of the following are problems associated with overdrawing groundwater EXCEPT:

A.Land subsidence
B.Increased infiltration
C.Lowering of the water table
D.Aquifer depletion

Question 21 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What is the structure located at the Rocky Reach Dam on the Columbia River and shown in the photograph below designed to do?

A.It reduces erosion downstream..
B.It improves the efficiency of hydroelectric generation
C.It slows down water to decrease sedimentation
D.It is a fish ladder to help fishes migrate upstream

Question 22 of 50 0.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following pollution problems are caused by sewage pollution?

A.Sediments that can reduce light penetration in water bodies.
B.Disease causing agents that pose a risk to human health.
C.Radioactive substances that can potentially threaten drinking water.
D.Carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to global climate change.

Question 23 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Wastewater, including sewage usually undergoes several treatments at a sewage treatment plant. Match the treatment with the process for expected outcome.

A.primary treatment: eliminating inorganic and organic compounds by aerating and circulating the wastewater.
B.tertiary treatment: biologically decomposing suspended organic material.
C.secondary treatment: reducing phosphorus and nitrogen levels with a filtering system.
D.primary treatment: removing suspended and floating particles by mechanical processes.

Question 24 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
From the figure below interpret the basic pattern of ocean currents and identify the reason why it is so.

A.The main ocean current flows south from the poles toward the equator partly due to the variations in density of seawater.
B.The main ocean current flows clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere partly due to the ocean conveyor belt.
C.The main ocean current flow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere partly due to gyres.
D.The main ocean current flow clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere partly due to the Coriolis effect.

Question 25 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Identify the ocean zone shown in the figure below that is labeled “A”.


Question 26 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What is likely to be the MOST important global impact of bycatch?

A.Loss of ocean biodiversity.
B.Coral bleaching.
C.Nonpoint source pollution.
D.Habitat destruction.

Question 27 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
How do many scientists believe the US can BEST manage our oceans?

A.By ratifying the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS),
B.By following an ecosystem based approach to manage ocean environments.
C.By switching from deep-sea fishing to aquaculture to reduce bycatch.
D.By switching to incentive based pollution laws to reduce ocean pollution.

Question 28 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
The main cause of undernutrition is

A.a shift from eating grains to eating processed foods.
B.lack of access to adequate nutritional guides.
D.the proliferation of monoculture practices.
E.unsanitary cooking of food.

Question 29 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
According to the graph below, U.S. wheat yields

A.suffered from poor weather conditions in 1980
B.benefited from the green revolution in 2000
C.remained constant from 1990-2005
D.doubled from 1950 to 1970
E.tripled from 1960 to 2005

Question 30 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
The move away from using techniques that produce high yield and toward methods that focus on long-term sustainability of the soil is known as

A.habitat fragmentation.
B.subsistence agriculture.
C.industrialized agriculture.
D.the green revolution.
E.the second green revolution.

Question 31 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What is a biological control for pest management?

A.some members of the pest population are sterilized
B.sexual attractants lure pest species to traps
C.predators, parasites, or disease organisms are released to reduce pest populations
D.harvested foods are exposed to ionizing radiation
E.genetic engineering develops pest-resistant crops

Question 32 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
The species richness of a community is related to all of the following factors except

A.the geological history of the region.
B.the geographic isolation of the community.
C.the abundance of ecological niches.
D.the quality of ecosystem services.
E.environmental stress.

Question 33 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the illustrated species below is considered endangered?


Question 34 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the goal of restoration ecology? provide legal protection to listed threatened species study how humans impact organisms return a human-damaged ecosystem to its former state develop strict controls for the exploitation of endangered species produce more natural ecosystems in urban settings

Question 35 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Why don’t scientists know the exact number of species on Earth?

A.because about 10,000 new species are identified each year.
B.because species are becoming extinct at a rate that is too fast to count
C.because the system used to define what constitutes a species keeps changing
D.because historical records are inaccurate
E.Scientists do know. There are 1.8 million existing species on Earth

Question 36 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Today’s solid waste contains more ________than in the past, whereas the amounts of glass and steel have declined.

A.paper and plastics wastes
C.yard wastes
D.copper and aluminum
E.rubber and wood

Question 37 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
According to the data in Figure 16.8a on page 405 of your textbook, what solid waste was recycled more in 2005 than it was incinerated or disposed of in the landfill? (NOTE: Each set of bars shows the recycling in millions of tons for 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 [left side]; and 2003, 2004, and 2005 [right side]).

A.yard trimmings
B.paper and paperboard
E.none of the waste products

Question 38 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
A group of 209 industrial chemicals composed of C, H, and Cl manufactured for cooling fluids, hydraulic fluids, lubricants, inks, and pesticide extenders are known as

A.petroleum oils.
B.inorganic solvents.
C.heavy metals.
E.polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Question 39 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following is an example of green chemistry?

A.use bacteria to treat contaminated soil
B.use plants to absorb and accumulate toxic materials from the soil
C.develop a water-based solvent to substitute for a chlorinated solvent for industrial cleaning
D.use high-temperature incineration to detoxify pesticides
E.prevent chemical accidents through the principle of inherent safety

Question 40 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Corporations and governments began to take NEPA seriously after which of the following events?

A.Environmental groups began suing individuals and organizations based on environmental impact statements.
B.Further legislation was added to strengthen NEPA.
C.The creation of the EPA.
D.The publication of Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring.

Question 41 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
The ability to meet humanity’s current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs is termed:

B.environmental sustainability
C.environmental ethics
D.environmental law

Question 42 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What is a species?

A.Organisms that live together.
B.Organisms that live in the same area at the same time.
C.A group of similar organisms whose members freely interbreed with one another.
D.All of the organisms that live together in an area including the physical environment that they live in.

Question 43 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
The resource show here can be classified as: 1. perpetually renewable 2. nonrenewable 3. renewable only if they are replanted and given time to grow

A.a) 1 only
B.b) 2 only
C.c) 3 only
D.d) both 1 and 2

Question 44 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Negative environmental impacts from oil and natural gas production may occur due to

A.release of oxides in combustion emissions.
B.accidental spills at extraction sites and during transport.
C.erosion and landslides during withdrawal of resources.
D.improper storage and disposal of spent fuel.

Question 45 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
What is the BEST definition of preservation?

A.Setting aside land and natural resources.
B.Careful management of land and resources.
C.Using land and natural resources based on current needs.
D.Multiple use management of land and natural resources.

Question 46 of 50 0.0/ 2.0 Points
“An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” This statement is the heart of the

A.remedial principle.
B.exposure principle
C.persistence principle.
D.precautionary principle.

Question 47 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
The process of identifying, assessing, and reducing risk is called:

B.risk assessment
C.risk management
D.risk categorization

Question 48 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Recommendations for achieving sustainable living include:

A.Eliminate poverty.
B.Design sustainable cities.
C.Provide adequate food for all people.
D.All these are recommendations for sustainable living.

Question 49 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Solar thermal energy systems are inherently more efficient than photovoltaic solar cell systems because solar thermal systems

A.diminish reliance on fossil fuel systems.
B.reduce the potential of global warming. not have any moving parts.
D.concentrate the sun’s energy.

Question 50 of 50 2.0/ 2.0 Points
Which of the following stages comes LAST in addressing environmental problems?

A.Risk analysis
B.Political action
C.Long-term management and evaluation
D.Scientific assessment