Who among the following individuals is most likely to exhibit event creativity?

PHL 320 Critical Thinking and Decision Making Final Exam


Who among the following individuals is most likely to exhibit event creativity?

An individual who establishes win-win relationships with other people

An individual who settles a disagreement quickly in an ingenious way

An individual who modifies the strategies of a group in a creative manner

An individual who organizes annual meetings and get-togethers innovatively


When does the incremental model of decision making take place?

When individuals merely follow the instructions of others who are experts in decision making

When individuals vie with one another for resources or disagree with each other on goals

When individuals make quick decisions based on their past experience in solving similar problems

When individuals make minor decisions and move carefully toward a bigger solution


In the stages of decision making, what should managers do immediately after identifying and diagnosing a problem?

Managers should create some alternative solutions to solve the issue recognized.

Managers should select a solution, from the options available, that offers the greatest benefit.

Managers should assign responsibility to specific individuals for implementing the solution identified to solve the problem.

Managers should think through the outcomes that might result from implementing any of the plans identified to solve the problem.


As a barrier to effective decision making, when do framing effects occur?

When decision makers believe they can influence events without having adequate control

When the selection of an alternative is influenced by the way it is phrased

When decision makers choose the first available alternative before proper evaluation

When the selection of an alternative is completely based on one’s past experience


Which of the following acts represents scapegoating?

Bringing a new topic into a conversation so as to distract the original discussion

Hanging a scary picture in front of a person to force him into doing something

Accusing a particular group of people for all the troubles faced in one’s life

Permitting one’s wishes and hopes to tint his or her views that affect judgment


How can organizational politics that impacts organizational decisions be reduced?

By making the decision-making process a collaborative task

By encouraging team members to engage in affective conflict

By motivating team members to be confrontational

By creating different goals for individual team members


Which of the following is considered a change-specific reason for employees’ resistance to change?

Group conformity pressures

Desire to maintain the status quo

Lack of clarity in the process

Inappropriate timing


What is true of the features used to judge a person’s credibility?

Individuals can accurately determine a person’s credibility based on physical characteristics.

Well-educated individuals can be highly relied upon as guides to ethical values.

Ethnicity, gender, and accent are inapt characteristics for judging credibility.

Mannerisms and age are two valid features that can be used to judge a person’s credibility.


Which of the following is considered a general reason for employees’ resistance to change?

Misleading information

Lack of clarity in the process

Inappropriate timing

Focus on one’s own interests


What is a fact related to strategic planning?

It recognizes the explicit measures essential at an organization’s lower levels.

It translates broad tactical goals and objectives into specific operational goals.

It is the responsibility of the frontline managers to develop strategic plans.

It has a time horizon that ranges from 3 to 7 years to decades (at times).


Which of the following is most likely to block new ideas from evolving within an organization?

Managers willing to vary the existing hierarchical structure of the organization

Management eliminating bureaucratic rules and procedures which in turn causes chaos

Employees being concerned about the likely changes to the products, processes, and budgets

Workers fearlessly looking for ways to break the monotony created by their jobs


Identify an example of spontaneous creativity.

Organizing annual meetings and get-togethers innovatively

Settling a disagreement quickly in a simple way

Establishing win-win relationships with other people

Modifying the strategies and procedures of a group


In the context of moving people to change, what should managers do to unfreeze?

Managers should enable employees to realize that some of the old ways of doing things are still the best.

Managers should convey to employees the difference that exists between their firms’ existing and expected performance.

Managers should give employees all details and facts about the change process regardless of whether it induces anxiety in them.

Manager should communicate an issue in such a way that it arouses defensiveness among employees which in turn quickens unfreezing.


Which of the following is likely to improve a group’s decision making process?

Group member staying focused on short-term outcomes

Team members completely agreeing with one another’s perspectives

Cognitive conflict that is personal rather than task related

Differences in group members’ viewpoints on the issue being discussed


Identify a subjective claim from the following examples.

”God exists.”

”Flu is contagious.”

”Italy has the best food.”

”Mars has two moons.”


When is a valid argument considered as being sound?

When its premise is false

When its conclusion is supported

When its premise is true

When its conclusion is not supported


Identify the drawback of utilitarianism.

It gives less importance to the consequences of actions.

It fails to weigh the pros and cons of actions.

It fails to consider the intentions of actions.

It is not suitable for choosing an outcome that maximizes happiness.


Who among the following individuals is most likely to be a victim of wishful thinking fallacy?

One who wishes to only use an alternative that solves a problem completely

One whose beliefs and decisions are affected by his or her needs and desires

One who blindly overestimates the decision making skills of one’s own group

One whose decisions are made merely based on past experience or expert advice


During internal resource analysis of the strategic management process, what does operations analysis involve?

An analysis of a firm’s strengths and weaknesses in human resource planning and labor relations

An analysis of a firm’s financial strengths and weaknesses through the use of balance sheet

An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a firm’s manufacturing and production activities

An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a firm’s marketing and promotional activities


How does a person reason deductively?

By trying to demonstrate a premise

By trying to prove a conclusion

By trying to support a conclusion

By trying to negate a finding


When does the straw man fallacy occur?

When a person considers only two alternatives even when other options are available

When a critic falsifies or overstates an adversary’s position

When a decision maker dismisses an alternative that fails to solve the issue completely

When a person tries to disprove a claim based on its source


Annie, an employee, who often attributes her team’s failures to bad luck, attributes the failures of other teams to their personal shortcomings. Which of the following cognitive biases do Annie’s attributions exemplify?

Hindsight bias

In-group bias

Belief bias

Self-deception bias


Identify the statement that accurately describes the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Unlike other Acts, its violations do not result in fines or prosecutions.

It was passed to promote business ethics by creating legal requirements.

Complying with the Act saves time and money, but deteriorates efficiency.

It requires businesses to have only company insiders as board directors.


In the context of levels of planning, what would be the responsibility of a frontline manager?

To translate broad strategic plans into precise goals and objectives

To determine the organization’s long-term strategic objectives

To develop and implement a tactical plan for each organizational department

To recognize the explicit measures essential at an organization’s lower levels


Which statement best describes a conglomerate diversification strategy?

It is corporate strategy in which a company vertically integrates to include supply chain activities.

It is a growth strategy in which a company tries sell its products in new diverse markets.

It is a corporate strategy in which a company expands its operations into unrelated businesses.

It is a growth strategy in which a company tries to differentiate its products from that of rivalry.


Which of the following questions is useful to be considered in the first stage of decision making?

What are the resources and activities required to implement the decision as planned?

Is there a discrepancy between the way things are and the way things ought to be?

What kinds of problems are likely to be faced if the chosen alternative is implemented?

Are there any solutions implemented previously to a problem similar to the present one?


What should a leader do to effectively manage group decision making?

Encourage team members to engage in groupthink

Promote the use of satisficing to quicken the process

Avoid letting a team member to dominate the discussion

Criticize team members who fail to suggest good alternatives


In the context of cognitive biases, when does the false consensus effect occur?

When one instinctively assigns a probability to an event based on past experience

When one unconsciously aligns his or her thoughts with that of others

When one assumes that one’s own and others’ attitudes are shared by society at large

When one agrees with a generalized statement based on a single report


Which of the following is an objective claim?

“Math is easier than science.”

”Italy has the best food.”

”Rice vinegar is too sweet.”

”Mars has two moons.”


Sam, a marketing manager, often makes ethical decisions based on what others feel about those decisions. He often considers opinions from other managers and employees. Which of the following ethical systems do Sam’s decisions follow?