1) Peer Discussion Post:
Some of the most commonly employed quantitative designs include experimental research, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018). The differences between the three are the ways each design is set up to conduct an experiment.
An experimental design isolates the identified phenomenal in a laboratory and controls conditions under which the experiment occurs (Polit & Beck, 2012). There is a control group and at least one experimental group (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018). An example of an experimental design would be test the effect Zyrtec has on allergies. A group of random people would be given Zyrtec and a control group would be given a placebo. The participants would have no idea if they are taking the medication or if they are given the placebo. The reported effectiveness would be collect and the data would be analyzed to determine if Zyrtec is effective against allergies.
A quasi-experimental design includes an intervention in the design (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018). This design differs from the experimental design because it does not have randomization. The example Rutberg & Bouikidis (2018) provide is a coffee company handing out samples of a certain flavor of coffee at location A and not at location B to see if revenue will increase over a one month period at location A. At the end of the month the revenue is compared at both locations to measure if giving out free samples impacted sales (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018).
In nonexperimental research an interest exists to observe the phenomena and identify if a relationship exists (Polit & Beck, 2012). Manipulation of variables does not occur with this design (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018). For instance, if someone had an interest in finding out if drinking coffee throughout one’s life decreased the incidence of having a stroke than researchers would ask participants to report approximately how much coffee they drank daily, and data would be compared to stroke incidence (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018).
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Rutberg, S. & Boudkidis, C.D. (2018). Focusing on the Fundamentals: A Simplistic
Differentiation Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 45(2), 209-212. Retrieved from: https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=129106232&site=eds-live&scope=site
2) Peer Discussion Post:
According to June Helbig, the purpose of an experimental research is to evaluate a treatment, experimental drug or an intervention. When conducting an experiment, the research is considered a randomized control trial (RCT) (Helbig, 2018). During a randomized trial, each participant is chosen at random with nothing in common. Also, when using the experimental method, the researcher has the capability of manipulating more than one of the variables. An example of experimental design would be assessing the effects of prophylactic treatment for common infection symptoms. Patients would be chosen at random to determine the benefits of the treatment. To determine the full effects of the experiment, participants should be chosen at random to determine if antibiotics would be enough in treating and preventing future occurrence effectively.
Quasi-experimental design involves selecting groups based on tested variables, rather than selecting the variables at random (Shuttleworth, 2019). For example, in order to perform an education experiment, the class would be divided alphabetically or according each individual seat (Shuttleworth, 2019). This method is helpful in that the method makes it easier for the researcher to compare the effectiveness of the research. Nonexperimental research on the other hand, looks at variables and their relationships with each other (Helbig, 2018). Nonexperimental research method doesn’t have random assignments or orders of conditions. An example of nonexperimental research method would be conducting a research to determine the reason behind high school bullying, then determining the self-esteem level of each student who participated in the study.
Shuttleworth, M. (2019). Quasi-experimental Design. Retrieved from https://explorable.com/quasi-experimental-design
Helbig, J. (2018). Statistical Analysis. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/applied-statistics-for-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/4
3) Peer Discussion Post:
Quantitative research is played out in many different ways, collecting data from clinical testing, trials of treatments and medications, to interviewing patients or monitoring nurses and healthcare workers (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018). Some of the examples are described as experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental.
According to Rutberg, experimental research takes an identified occurrence confines it, and controls the situations in which the experiments plays out. Using a randomization process, there is an experimental group who receives the intervention which is being researched and a placebo is given to the control group. An example of this is the effects of nicotine via vaping technique in teens and the ability to concentrate or focus. The experimental group is allowed to vape a nicotine product and then given an experimental test, focused on memory and the ability to focus, the control group is given a placebo product and would also be tested in the same way. In research the purpose is to compare each of the variables to one another comparing similarities and differences.
In the situation of quasi-experimental research there is an intervention that is outlined, measures of outcomes are evaluated pre and post intervention. A comparison is made deciding whether this particular intervention made a difference (Rutberg & Bouikidis, 2018). An example of this would be developing a program with in the high school/college setting regarding STI awareness, going in discussing the topics included in the program evaluating existing knowledge. After assessing the preexisting knowledge the program is given and a post intervention assessment is done evaluating whether the knowledge has been received and considered.
Nonexperimental research is designed not to manipulate the variables with in the study but to observe the event and link any type of relationship that may exist between these variables (An example of nonexperimental research would be, does the amount of time a teen indulges in social media (fFacebook, Snapchat, etc) effect the the teens academic achievements and willingness to continue their future academic future.
It is critical in healthcare for providers to understand the basis for basic research within the profession. This basic understanding will not only provide them with an increase in knowledge, it will provide them with a skill to incorporate research and understand results in their own area resulting in the ability to provide safe, quality care while using evidence-based practice (Helbig, 2018).
Helbig, June. 2018. Statistical Analysis. https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/applied-statistics-for-health-care.1e.php
Rutberg, S, Bouikidis, C. Nephrology Nursing Journal (2018). Exploring the Evidence. Focusing on the Fundamentals: A Simplistic Differentiation Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search/ebschost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&dub=ccm&AN=129106232&site=
4) Peer Discussion Post:
Research designs are frameworks that consists of techniques and methods that a researcher uses in combination with other research components in order to have a logical method of solving a given topic. It is aimed at providing insight to the researcher on how a research can be conducted using a given methodology. There are different types of methodology but for the purpose of this assignment we shall consider experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental as discussed below (Moissenko, Braicu, Tomuleasa and Berindan-Neagoe, 2015).
Experimental design is a type of research design that finds out the relationship that occur between a causal agent and the effect that it causes. This type of design focuses on the causal agent which is an independent variable and the effects that it causes on the dependent variable. An example is an information system comparison where a study wants to compare the effectiveness of two systems on their ability to offer training to end uses where cognitive latent variables are used and their effectiveness in influencing results (Gupta, 2014).
Quasi means resembling and therefore quasi experimental design means that it resembles experimental design. Quasi experimental design can be defined as an experiment where independent variables are manipulated. It differs with experimental design in that tither there is no random selection, active manipulation, no control group or random assignment. An example of this design is the interrupted time series designs that is aimed at testing the effect of treatment by comparing the pattern of pre-test scores and post-test scores on a given group of subjects (Behi and Nolan, 1996).
Non experimental research is a type of research design is a type of research where there is no manipulation of variables that are independent, random assignment of people taking part to order of conditions or conditions. The difference between experimental and non-experimental is that experimental research makes more sense when the person doing research as a specific hypothesis or research questions and the casual relationship between the variables. While for non-experimental, a single variable can be used, research question can be non-casual, in case of casual relationship independent variables are not manipulated and research questions can be exploratory and broad. Example: a researcher might want to find out the effect of doing regular exercise and the management of lifestyle diseases. in this experiment we can research on the effect of regular exercise to contracting diseases.
Behi R, & Nolan M. (1996). Research. Quasi-experimental research designs. British Journal of Nursing, 5(17), 1079–1081. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=107332642&site=eds-live&scope=site
Gupta, S. (2014). SEM for Experimental Designs: An Information Systems Example. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 12(1), 27–40. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=99309334&site=eds-live&scope=site
Moissenko, F., Braicu, C., Tomuleasa, C., & Berindan-Neagoe, I. (2015). Types of Research Designs. Cancer Research and Clinical Trials in Developing Countries, 29-39. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18443-2_3