I am going to put the scoring guide at the end of this. Your work is always awesome, but please follow the scoring guide. I need to have every criteria score “basic” or higher please. I cannot have anything in “non-performance”. This professor grades really hard.
Create a 3–4-page report on the basic environmental health principles, theories, and issues of an emerging or reemerging disease.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
- Competency 1: Assess basic environmental health principles, theories, and issues.
- Analyze an emerging or reemerging disease.
- Describe how an emerging disease is transmitted.
- Describe the incubation period of an emerging disease.
- Describe how an emerging disease is treated.
- Predict prognosis of recovery and residual effects of an emerging disease.
- Assess the role of vaccines in disease prevention.
- Competency 4: Communicate effectively in a variety of formats.
- Write coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics.
To understand emerging and reemerging diseases, you must first understand the interconnectedness between human health and the environment and have a grasp on epidemiology. The Assessment 1 Context document for this assessment provides a brief overview of the concept of interconnectedness and the field of epidemiology. You may wish to review this document for key ideas and information.
ASSESSMENT 1 CONTEXT
Epidemiology, the study of determinates and distribution of disease in populations, is essential in protecting public health and controlling health problems.Before moving into the specifics of epidemiology, you need to understand some of the basics of human anatomy and physiology; specifically, how the immune system protects us from disease.Your body’s first line of defense against a foreign invader is keeping the invader out. The skin is part of that defense, as it creates a barrier over most of the body. This defense continues with the mucous membranes lining your nasal pathway, and the hairs help catch particles and keep them from entering your lungs. Tears and saliva both contain lysozymes, which can break down foreign invaders. Bleeding from an open wound helps to rinse away dirt and other particles, and clotting helps keep anything from entering the body through that wound. And your body contains many different types of white blood cells that can fight off a variety of pathogens.If an invader gets past the first line of the defense, the body’s second line of defense is the immune system. We can acquire natural immunity in two different ways: naturally acquired active immunity occurs when we are exposed to a disease-causing agent (for example, getting chicken pox as a child), and naturally acquired passive immunity occurs when antibodies are received through the placenta or breast milk. We can also attain immunity through vaccinations; this is called artificially acquired active immunity. Persons with severe immunodeficiency may be given antibody-containing serums or immunoglobins from a person or animal.Many cells and chemicals that are part of the immune system work to destroy foreign substances as they enter the body. Macrophages circulate throughout the body and digest any foreign substances they run into. Interferons are chemicals released when a cell is attacked by a virus. These and other chemicals signal surrounding cells to shut down and prevent the virus from spreading. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that produces antigens that respond to specific viruses. So, if you had chicken pox as a child, then your body will produce antibodies to protect you if the chicken pox virus enters your body again.The state of the environment also plays a role in disease transmission. For example, the changing weather patterns associated with global warming affect disease patterns. The increased rainfall and flooding in some areas has increased the populations of a major carrier of disease—mosquitoes. The warm winters and hot dry summers in many areas are also affecting the transmission of vector borne diseases; for example, ticks spread Lyme disease and bacteria spread cholera. There is significant evidence that outbreaks of Ebola are related to unusual patterns in the wet/dry cycle. Increases in international travel have also increased the spread of diseases worldwide.In the United States, emerging diseases such as West Nile Virus cause severe illness and sometimes death (World Health Organization, 2011). As diseases spread, or new diseases are recognized, fear of a major epidemic has caused public health agencies to prepare plans for mass epidemics or bioterrorism events.
Disease Transmission Routes
- Airborne (coughing, sneezing).
- Fecal-oral transmission (improper hand washing contaminating food, untreated sewage contaminating water supply).
- Waterborne (drinking, swimming, eating, improper hand washing).
- Direct contact (athlete’s foot, warts, STDs).
- Zoonoses (animal bites, scratches, meat, hides, feces).
- Vector-transmitted (insects, rodents).
- Soil contamination (landfill leaching).
- Fomite (transferred from inanimate objects like handrails, door knobs, grocery carts, clothing, toys).
- Nosocomial (transferred from health workers).
(Hilgenkamp, 2006, p. 54).
As the human population and technology have grown, our impact on the environment—and subsequently, on our own health—has also grown. The World Health Organization (2014) defines environmental health as “all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviors. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behavior not related to environment, as well as behavior related to the social and cultural environment, and genetics.”To understand environmental health, we must first understand the environment and its many interrelated systems. We do not often think about the Earth beyond what we see around us every day, but the environment spans from the core of the Earth to the outer reaches of the troposphere. The four main divisions of the Earth system are the lithosphere (crust and mantle), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (gases surrounding earth), and biosphere (area supporting life).Life on Earth depends on the biogeochemical cycles that occur within each of these regions. Biogeochemical cycles recycle energy and chemicals through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. Within the biosphere there are specific divisions called biomes. Biomes are characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.Because humans dominate most ecosystems on Earth, we have a large impact on the environment. Overpopulation and demands on natural resources can degrade the environment. Since the environment provides us with so many resources such as clean air, clean water, and nutrients, environmental degradation directly influences human health.Environmental scientists and government officials look for ways to preserve the environment and conserve environmental resources. By monitoring human demand on the environment, laws such as the Endangered Species Act, Clean Air Act, and Clean Water Act have worked to protect the environment for future generations.While technology has created many problems for the environment, it is also being used to benefit the environment and human health. New farming techniques, waste management methods, and pollution control devices all help to keep the environment healthy and protect human health.Environmental health is everyone’s responsibility. Public health officials and governmental leaders are on the front lines, but the decisions made daily by businesses and individuals directly affect our health and the health of the environment.
Hilgenkamp, K. (2006). Environmental health: Ecological perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.World Health Organization. (2011, July). West Nile Virus. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs354/en…World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. (2014). Environmental health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/environmental_health/en/
Questions to Consider
To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.
- In your own words, what is your definition of environmental health? Why?
- Is environmental health is a global issue? Why or why not?
- Is environmental health an individual concern? Why or why not?
- Do you think most Americans understand the term environmental health? Why or why not?
- Some people feel vaccination should be voluntary and not mandated. What is a reasonable argument to support that position?
- What is an emerging or reemerging disease?
Access the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently. Permissions for the following links have been either granted or deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). IPCC. Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/
- World Health Organization. (2014). Emerging diseases. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/emerging_diseases/en/
- National Institute of Health and Infectious Diseases. (n.d.). Emerging infectious diseases/pathogens. Retrieved from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/
Assessment InstructionsThis assessment requires you to write a report assessing the basic environmental health principles, theories, and issues of an emerging or reemerging disease.To begin, select one emerging or reemerging disease to research for this report.
Note: The WHO Emerging Diseases and CDC Web sites (both linked in the Resources under the Internet Resources heading) list a variety of relevant diseases.Then, craft a 3–4-page report that analyzes the disease and addresses the following points:
- Provide a brief historical account of the disease selected. Consider why this disease is emerging or reemerging.
- What areas of the globe are currently affected by this disease?
- How is it transmitted?
- What is the incubation period?
- What is the treatment for this disease?
- What is the role of vaccines in combatting this disease? If there is no vaccine, why not?
- What is the predicted prognosis of recovery and residual effect?
Your report should be logically organized around a point you would like to make regarding the emerging or reemerging disease you select. Consider the MEAL Plan to help organize your thoughts:
- Main Idea: What is the main point or idea that you want your reader to remember about this disease?
- Evidence: What does the research say? Support your point with evidence from the literature you have researched. (This is where you would include facts about the history, transmission, incubation, treatment, and prevention of the disease. Refer to your sources when you provide your evidence.)
- Assess: Summarize main ideas from articles related to the disease. Apply health principles and theories that relate directly or indirectly to your main point. Make explicit links between source articles and your current report.
- Link: Integrate and combine information from your source articles to your main point or idea.
Use the APA Paper Template (linked in the Resources under the Required Resources heading) to format your report.
- Written Communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
- Length: This report should be 3–4 pages in content length. Include a separate title page and a separate references page.
- Font and Font Size: Times New Roman, 12-point, double-spaced. Use Microsoft Word.
- APA Formatting: Resources and in-text citations should be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.
- Number of Resources: You are required to cite a minimum of 2 scholarly resources. You may conduct independent research for resources and references to support your report. Provide a reference list and in-text citations for all of your resources, using APA format. You may cite texts and authors from the Resources.
Emerging Diseases Scoring Guide
CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Analyze an emerging or reemerging disease. Does not describe an emerging or reemerging disease. Describes an emerging or reemerging disease. Analyzes an emerging or reemerging disease. Evaluates an emerging or reemerging disease and provides future predictions, opinions, and supporting examples. Describe how an emerging disease is transmitted. Does not identify how the emerging disease is transmitted. Identifies how the emerging disease is transmitted. Describes how the emerging disease is transmitted. Analyzes in depth how the emerging disease is transmitted. Describe the incubation period of an emerging disease. Does not identify the incubation period of the emerging disease. Identifies the incubation period of the emerging disease. Describes the incubation period of the emerging disease. Analyzes in depth the incubation period of the emerging disease, and discusses any exceptions to the average incubation period. Describe how an emerging disease is treated. Does not identify how the emerging disease is treated. Identifies how the emerging disease is treated. Describes how the emerging disease is treated. Analyzes in depth how the emerging disease is treated, and discusses alternative treatments. Predict prognosis of recovery and residual effects of an emerging disease. Does not predict prognosis of recovery or residual effects of the emerging disease. Predicts prognosis of recovery or residual effects of the emerging disease. Predicts prognosis of recovery and residual effects of the emerging disease. Predicts prognosis of recovery and residual effects of the emerging disease, and evaluates prognosis. Assess the role of vaccines in disease prevention. Does not describe the role of vaccines in disease prevention. Describes the role of vaccines in disease prevention. Assesses the role of vaccines in disease prevention. Provides an in-depth assessment of the role of vaccines in disease prevention, including a discussion of the current issues. Write coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics. Does not write in support a central idea in appropriate format. Does not use correct grammar, usage, and mechanics. Writes in support of an idea with consistent format, but includes major errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics. Writes coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics. Writes coherently, using evidence to support a central idea in a consistently appropriate format, with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics.