Hi, I have 2 of my classmate posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. , one source at least for each one of them.

how good their posts or how bad.

to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. The paper should be APA style

question was:

What are some of the biggest challenges in developing and implementing a preparedness exercise in a hospital setting?

What differences/similarities exist between hospital and municipal preparedness exercises


is the first post from my



Preparedness Exercise

The preparedness exercise is designed to prepare response teams to respond to an unreal emergency. The activity allows members to boost their plans, improve the design and identify areas of improvements. The exercise is a great method to weigh the program, test and validate recently adopted procedures and enhance coordination among the involved teams. A full-scale exercise is prepared to be as real as possible. It uses appropriate equipment and personnel that would be contacted to assist during an actual event. The practice is prepared by first assessing the needs and existing capabilities of an institute (Sharma, 2017). A preparedness plan is presented to the people before the exercise is conducted. The preparedness exercise has been practiced successfully in many organizations, but it has proven to be challenging in hospitals. Hospitals face many challenges that often prevent the success of a preparedness exercise. These issues include:

Whole Day Operations

Hospitals have unpredictable demands for emergency services. This creates fluctuation of utilization on hourly and even weekly

. Hospitals are designed to cater for an emergency from accidents and large localities. This makes it difficult to develop a preparedness exercise that would cater to this nature of disasters that are common in the hospitals. Besides, interfering with other daily operations in a hospital to practice a preparedness exercise will cause more harm than good.

Limited Resources

Hospitals have minimal facilities to deal with emergencies. Most hospitals operate under full capacity. Therefore, any temporary surge in routine will lead to crowding or ambulance diversions. This will lead to reduced qualities of services in hospitals. Besides, a drill will shift the sufficient care

of hospitals to saving

mode. Focusing operations on saving many

lives lowers
the chance of survival (Edwards et al., 2008). Thus, a hospital’s decision to change to disaster management mode has enormous effects. This reveals a significant challenge to the preparedness exercise.

Funding Challenges

The funds geared towards

preparedness are not sufficient for all hospitals. The hospitals lack consolidated drugs and vaccines to supply causalities during a drill exercise. This depresses coordination capacities in hospitals in case of emergencies. Additionally, most hospitals lack sufficient communication infrastructure that helps during a preparedness exercise. Communication ensures that a hospital’s causalities are directed to appropriate facilities and that the hospital will not be overwhelmed with patients.

Hospital Complexity

A hospital is a facility that incurs

expenses with costly and fragile equipment. A drill exposes the equipment to a high risk of destructions. The complexity of a hospital setting has significantly posed challenges to preparedness exercises (McCrum, 2014). In hospitals, there are chemical and biological risks involved. Both hospital staff and patients are exposed to contamination in case hospital operations are interrupted. Contamination may be a result of toxic inhalation or skin exposure. This has limited chances of a successful drill in hospitals.

Similarities and differences between Hospital and Municipal Preparedness Exercises

The significant similarities between a

and a hospital drill are that they all aim at educating the workforce of essential public system emergency and identifying a specific level of system challenge. In both exercises, recommendations are taken and implemented. However, the only notable difference between the two activities is that unlike a hospital drill, municipal drills are not evaluative but are intended majorly for training.


Edwards, J. C.,

, J., &

, R. (2008). Promoting regional disaster preparedness among rural hospitals. The Journal of Rural Health, 24

3), 321-325.

McCrum, M. L., Lipsitz, S. R., Berry, W. R., Jha, A. K., & Gawande, A. A. (2014). Beyond volume: does hospital complexity matter? An analysis of inpatient surgical mortality in the United States. Medical care, 52

3), 235-242.

Sharma, A. (2017). Resilience

assessment for critical infrastructure disruption.

This is the second post

FAHAD need t


  • Challenges in Developing and Implementing a Preparedness Exercise in a Hospital Setting

Preparedness exercise
includes all the activities that are undertaken in order to get ready and adequately respond in case of an occurrence of an emergency. Especially in a hospital setting, preparedness exercise is essential since it aids the physicians and other relevant stakeholders to grasp knowledge on how they can tackle an emergency and reduce the risk. However, there are significant challenges which are associated with the development and implementing of the preparedness exercise in a hospital setting. In regard to the development stage of the preparedness exercise, the major challenge which is being experienced is the insufficient or lack of funds to facilitate the whole program. Conducting drills and preparedness exercises related to healthcare can be costly, and it needs setting up aside a substantial amount of funds for the entire process to be processed to be successful (Kaji Langford & Lewis, 2008). Most of the healthcare organizations may find the preparedness exercises as a waste of resources; thus they may hesitate to take advantage of the required funds for the whole activity to be a success.

Intuitively, the biggest challenge at the implementation stage is the schedule. Finding the appropriate time to conduct the drill and preparedness exercise may be difficult since hospitals are always busy addressing the patient’s needs. Considering the sensitive nature of their operations, they are operational day and night thus find the appropriate time to undertake preparedness exercise can be a challenge.

  • Preparedness Exercise for Municipal and Hospital

Preparedness exercises for hospital and municipal are almost similar, but there is some distinction when it is carefully analyzed. Preparedness exercises for hospital and municipal displayed a similarity in terms of their goals. Both preparedness exercises have the same goals or functionality since they are explicitly conducted for risk reduction in case of an emergency. Another similarity is exhibited since they both have the objective of enabling the affected entity to survive a crisis and recover quickly independently. However, there is a difference in the preparedness exercise for hospital and municipal notably in terms of the nature of their emergency preparedness. The hospital preparedness exercises are typically related healthcare such as the outbreak of diseases or food contaminations or incidents which might occur internally inside the hospital for example fire incidents. But the municipal preparedness exercises are general, and it encompasses emergencies which affect the general population such as terror attacks or floods (Reilly & Markenson, 2010). The other difference exhibited in the hospital, and municipal preparedness exercise is regarding the intensity and complexity of the emergency they are addressing. Hospital preparedness activity typical address incidents or significant incidents which have a direct impact on the healthcare while municipal preparedness exercise address disasters and catastrophe which have adverse effects on a considerable number of people.


Kaji, A, Langford, V, Lewis,R (2008). Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness: A Comparison of an On-Site Survey, Directly Observed Drill Performance, and Video Analysis of Teamwork, Annals of Emergency Medicine V52, No3, 195-201.

Reilly, M., & Markenson, D. S. (2010). Health Care Emergency Management: Principles and Practice

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