PSYC8747 Walden ?Trauma And The Immune System PTSD Discussion Help

Trauma and the Immune System

Ask any military veteran or a survivor of violent crime and you are likely to discover that the impact of trauma extends beyond the effects of physical injury. For example, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is common to experience manifestations such as nightmares, panic attacks, and hypersensitivity. Psychoneuroimmunology theories dictate that trauma can also have an impact on various systems of the body such as the brain and the immune system. For example, research described in this week’s Learning Resources indicates that traumatic events that can cause individuals to develop PTSD can result in altered immune cell levels. Consider whether the altered immune function of those recovering from trauma might have life-long consequences for health.

For this Discussion, review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider the effects of trauma on the brain and the immune system. Then select a specific type of trauma. Finally, reflect on two possible life-long consequences of that type of trauma on health.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 4 a brief explanation of the effects of trauma on the brain and the immune system. Then, briefly describe the type of trauma you selected. Finally, explain at least two possible life-long consequences of that type of trauma on health. Be specific and provide examples to support your response.

Be sure to support your posts and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

Readings

  • Contrada, R. J. (2011). The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
    • Chapter 5, “Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Sequelae of Immune System Activation” (pp. 65–76)
    • Chapter 25, “Stress and Depression” (pp. 345–358)
    • Chapter 26, “Stressors and Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence,” (pp. 359–372)
    • Chapter 27, “Physical Health Outcomes of Trauma,” (pp. 373–384)
  • Kendall-Tackett, K. (Ed.). (2010). The psychoneuroimmunology of chronic disease: Exploring the links between inflammation, stress, and illness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    • Chapter 5, “Depression, Hostility, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Inflammation: The Corrosive Health Effects of Negative Mental States” (pp. 113–131)
    • Chapter 6, “Cognitive and Behavioral Reactions to Stress Among Adults with PTSD: Implications for Immunity and Health” (pp. 133–158)
    • Chapter 9, “Treatments for Depression That Lower Inflammation: Additional Support for an Inflammatory Etiology of Depression” (pp. 219–242)
  • Altemus, M., Dhabhar, F., & Ruirong, Y. (2006). Immune Function in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071(1), 167–183.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Dantzer, R. (2012). Depression and inflammation: An intricate relationship. Biological Psychiatry, 71(1), 4–5.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Dantzer, R., O’Connor, J. C., Freund, G. G., Johnson, R. W., & Kelley, K. W. (2008). From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(1), 46–56.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Gill, J. M., Saligan, L., Woods, S., & Page, G. (2009). PTSD is associated with an excess of inflammatory immune activities. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 45(4), 262–277.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Gill, J., Vythilingam, M., & Page, G. G. (2008). Low cortisol, high DHEA, and high levels of stimulated TNF-α, and IL-6 in women with PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(6), 530–539.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Howk, C., & Bennett, M. (2010). Immune function and health outcomes in women with depression. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 4, 3–11.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Leonard, B. E. (2010). The concept of depression as a dysfunction of the immune system. Current Immunology Reviews, 6(3), 205–212.
    Copyright 2010 by Bentham Science Publishers, Ltd. Reprinted by permission of Bentham Science Publishers, Ltd., via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  • Sarapas, C., Cai, G., Bierer, L. M., Golier, J. A., Galea, S., Ising, M.,…Yehuda, R. (2011). Genetic markers for PTSD risk and resilience among survivors of the World Trade Center attacks. Disease Markers, 30(2–3), 101–110.
    Retrieved from Walden Library databases.
  • Scott-Tilley, D., Tilton, A., & Sandel, M. (2010). Biologic correlates to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in female victims of intimate partner violence: Implications for practice. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 26–36.
    Retrieved from Walden Library databases.
  • Wilson, D. R. (2010). Health consequences of childhood sexual abuse. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 56–64.
    Retrieved from Walden Library databases.
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2009). Key molecule in inflammation-related depression confirmed. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2009/key-molecule-in-inflammation-related-depression-confirmed.shtml

Optional Resources

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