ECONOMICS OF ORGANIZATION AND STRATEGY

Assignment Overview

Apple and Samsung are often mentioned together, as they are both world leading producers of smartphones.  However, they are much different companies in a variety of ways.  Carefully review the background readings concerning diversification and vertical integration.  Then do some extensive research on Samsung and Apple concerning their diversification and vertical integration strategies.

Case Assignment

When you have finished your research, write a two- to three-page paper answering the following questions. Make sure to cite both the required background readings as well as articles on Samsung and Apple:

  1.  
    1. To what extent does Apple engage in related diversification?  To what extent do they engage in unrelated diversification?
    2. To what extent does Samsung engage in related diversification?  To what extent do they engage in unrelated diversification?
    3. To what extent does Apple engage in backward (upstream) vertical integration?  To what extent do they engage in forward (downstream) vertical integration?
    4. To what extent does Samsung engage in backward (upstream) vertical integration?  To what extent do they engage in forward (downstream) vertical integration?
    5. Overall what major differences or similarities do you find between Samsung and Apple’s diversification and vertical integration strategies?

MARKET STRUCTURE AND GAME THEORY

 KINDLY FIND ATTACHED THE TABLE

Assignment Overview

As always, make sure to thoroughly review the required background materials before starting the assignments.  The assignment questions will require you to do some calculations and also apply the concepts from the module. Question 3 differs from previous assignments in that you have to use an online simulation tool; but this activity should be a fun break from the standard numerical problems you have been doing.

Case Assignment

  1.  
    1. For this problem use the Herfindahl Index to compute market concentration:
      1. Suppose Apple has 45% of the U.S. market share for smartphones, followed by Samsung with 30%, LG with 9%, Motorola with 8%, HTC with 6%, and Nokia with 2%.  What is the Herfindahl Index for the smartphone industry based on these numbers? Based on the Herfindahl Index, do you think the government would be willing to approve a merger between Apple and Samsung?
      2. Now suppose Nokia and Motorola come out with a new smartphone that takes away a huge chunk of market share from Apple and Samsung. The new market shares are 25% for Apple, 20% for Samsung, 20% for Motorola, 20% for Nokia, 10% for LG, and 5% for HTC.
    2. Use what you learned about perfect competition, monopoly, and oligopoly to answer these questions:
      1. In the table below is the quantity produced, the price, the fixed costs, and variable costs for a perfectly competitive firm that faces a constant price of $150 for its product regardless of the quantity it sells.  Use the information in the first four columns to calculate the number for the last four columns.  At what quantity should they produce based on what you find with your results?
      2. How do you think your answer might change if it became a monopolist with all of its competitors leaving the market?  Or if it became an oligopoly with only one or two competitors?        KINDLY FIND ATTACHED THE TABLE 
    3. You’ve read about the prisoner’s dilemma in the background readings.  Suppose you are a business owner with just one main competitor.  If neither you nor your competitor cut your prices, you will both be more profitable.  However, if your competitor lowers its prices and you keep your prices high, then you will lose all of your sales to your competitor.  Every month you and your competitor place advertisements in the local newspaper with your price – so you need to decide each month whether or not to keep prices high, or lower them based on what you think your competitor might do. Go to the following webpage and test out some of your potential price strategies:http://www.gametheory.net/Mike/applets/PDilemma/Pdilemma.htmlThe strategy “defect” indicates lowering your prices. The strategy “cooperate” means keep prices the same. Try out different strategies, such as cooperating all the time or defecting sometimes.  There are five different rounds of this game, each with a competitor with different personalities and different strategies.  Play all five rounds and experiment with different strategic approaches.  Report your scores for each round, and discuss which strategies seemed to work the best for you.

Assignment Expectations

  • Answer the assignment questions directly.
  • Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
  • For computational problems, make sure to show your work and explain your steps.?

 

 

SUPPLY AND DEMAND

 

Assignment Overview

Before beginning this assignment, make sure you have gone carefully through all of the required readings for this module.  It is very important to carefully absorb the general concepts as well as the numerical examples in the background readings.  For this assignment, you will have to answer some purely conceptual questions, as well as some numerical problems.  For conceptual questions, make sure to thoroughly explain your answers and to cite specific readings from the required background materials to explain your answers.  For numerical problems, make sure to show all of your work and explain how you arrived at your answers (partial credit can be given if you get the final answer wrong but do some of the steps correctly).

Case Assignment

Part A: Conceptual questions

  1. Suppose you own a pet shop.  Your sales are decent but a marketing consultant tells you that you could increase your sales and be able to charge a higher price if you spend some money on local television ads.  If the consultant is right, will advertising lead to an increase in quantity demanded?  Or a shift in the demand curve?  Both?  Neither?  Explain your answer and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings in your answer.
  2. You are the owner of a furniture factory.  You normally produce 100 pieces of furniture a day because that is how much you can produce given the amount of qualified workers in your town and the amount of reasonably priced wood that you can purchase locally.  Then one day you get an order from a large national retail chain who wants to purchase 200 pieces of furniture a day from you.  You are hesitant, as you will have to pay higher wages to get some qualified workers to move to your town.  You also will need to pay higher prices for wood because you will no longer be able to rely solely on local suppliers and will have to spend more on shipping wood from other towns.  But you drive a hard bargain and the retail chain agrees to pay one and a half times your normal price.  Does this situation describe a change in quantity supplied?  A shift in the supply curve?  Both?  Neither? Explain your answer and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings in your answer.
  3. Suppose marijuana has just been legalized in your state.  Nobody in your home town wants to start a marijuana business, as this would be too much of a stigma.  But being an MBA student, you know a good business opportunity when you see one and decide to take a stab.  Shortly after starting up your business, you gain a loyal following of customers and start raking in some steep profits.  However, the local government decides that they want a cut of your profits and starts charging a 20% sales tax on marijuana.  Do you think this would lead to a 20% or greater loss in sales?  Do you think marijuana in this situation would be facing inelastic or elastic demand?  Explain your reasoning, and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings regarding elasticity.

Part B Quantitative Problem

Suppose the demand function for a new smartphone can be expressed as QD =  1000 – 1.5P with QD being quantity demanded and P being price.  The supply function can be expressed as QS = 50 + 2P

Fill out the following table using the above equations:

Price

 

KINDLY FIND ATTACHED PICTURE OF THE TABLE

 

 

Now answer the following questions:

  1. What is the equilibrium price?  You can compute this either using Microsoft Excel, or by using algebra from the equations above and solving for a price where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded. Show your work by either showing the algebra steps or by showing how you used Excel to calculate.
  2. Suppose the supply function changes to 100 + 2P.  What is the new equilibrium? Show your work by either showing the algebra steps or by showing how you used Excel to calculate.

Assignment Expectations

  • Answer the assignment questions directly.
  • Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
  • For computational problems, make sure to show your work and explain your steps.

For short answer/short essay questions, make sure to reference your sources of information with both a bibliography and in-text citations.

PRODUCTION AND COST

Assignment Overview

Before beginning this assignment, make sure you have gone carefully through all of the required readings for this module.  It is very important to carefully absorb both the general concepts as well as the numerical examples in the background readings.  For this assignment, you will have to answer some purely conceptual questions as well as some numerical problems.  For conceptual questions, make sure to thoroughly explain your answers and to cite specific readings from the required background materials to explain your answers.  For numerical problems, make sure to show all of your work and explain how you arrived at your answers (partial credit can be given if you get the final answer wrong but do some of the steps correctly). Note that you need to use Microsoft Excel to do the graphs for the numerical problems.

Case Assignment

Part A: Conceptual questions

  1. Suppose you own a television factory and at your current level of output you have average total cost of $800 per television, average variable costs of $700 per television, and a marginal cost of $400.  If the price your buyers are willing to pay is $500, should you decrease or increase production?  Explain your reasoning, and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings in your answer.
  2. You are the owner of a restaurant, and currently you have only one waiter.  While this keeps costs down, many of your customers go home because they are tired of waiting in line or waiting for their order.  You hire four more waiters and waitresses, and you are now able to serve a dramatically higher number of customers.  Seeing the huge productivity gains from hiring more staff, you then hire 20 more waiters and waitresses.  However, you are not able to serve any more customers than you were able to when your staff size was only four.  In fact, your restaurant has become overly crowded because there is not enough room in your restaurant for all of your staff.  You are confused as to why hiring four more staff members increased your productivity, but hiring 20 more did not.  What concept from the background readings best describes what happened in this case?  Explain your reasoning.

 

KINDLY FIND ATTACHED THE TABLE

 

Assignment Expectations

  • Answer the assignment questions directly.
  • Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
  • For computational problems, make sure to show your work and explain your steps.

SUPPLY AND DEMAND

 

Assignment Overview

Before beginning this assignment, make sure you have gone carefully through all of the required readings for this module.  It is very important to carefully absorb the general concepts as well as the numerical examples in the background readings.  For this assignment, you will have to answer some purely conceptual questions, as well as some numerical problems.  For conceptual questions, make sure to thoroughly explain your answers and to cite specific readings from the required background materials to explain your answers.  For numerical problems, make sure to show all of your work and explain how you arrived at your answers (partial credit can be given if you get the final answer wrong but do some of the steps correctly).

Case Assignment

Part A: Conceptual questions

  1. Suppose you own a pet shop.  Your sales are decent but a marketing consultant tells you that you could increase your sales and be able to charge a higher price if you spend some money on local television ads.  If the consultant is right, will advertising lead to an increase in quantity demanded?  Or a shift in the demand curve?  Both?  Neither?  Explain your answer and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings in your answer.
  2. You are the owner of a furniture factory.  You normally produce 100 pieces of furniture a day because that is how much you can produce given the amount of qualified workers in your town and the amount of reasonably priced wood that you can purchase locally.  Then one day you get an order from a large national retail chain who wants to purchase 200 pieces of furniture a day from you.  You are hesitant, as you will have to pay higher wages to get some qualified workers to move to your town.  You also will need to pay higher prices for wood because you will no longer be able to rely solely on local suppliers and will have to spend more on shipping wood from other towns.  But you drive a hard bargain and the retail chain agrees to pay one and a half times your normal price.  Does this situation describe a change in quantity supplied?  A shift in the supply curve?  Both?  Neither? Explain your answer and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings in your answer.
  3. Suppose marijuana has just been legalized in your state.  Nobody in your home town wants to start a marijuana business, as this would be too much of a stigma.  But being an MBA student, you know a good business opportunity when you see one and decide to take a stab.  Shortly after starting up your business, you gain a loyal following of customers and start raking in some steep profits.  However, the local government decides that they want a cut of your profits and starts charging a 20% sales tax on marijuana.  Do you think this would lead to a 20% or greater loss in sales?  Do you think marijuana in this situation would be facing inelastic or elastic demand?  Explain your reasoning, and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings regarding elasticity.

Part B Quantitative Problem

Suppose the demand function for a new smartphone can be expressed as QD =  1000 – 1.5P with QD being quantity demanded and P being price.  The supply function can be expressed as QS = 50 + 2P

Fill out the following table using the above equations:

Price

 

KINDLY FIND ATTACHED PICTURE OF THE TABLE

 

 

Now answer the following questions:

  1. What is the equilibrium price?  You can compute this either using Microsoft Excel, or by using algebra from the equations above and solving for a price where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded. Show your work by either showing the algebra steps or by showing how you used Excel to calculate.
  2. Suppose the supply function changes to 100 + 2P.  What is the new equilibrium? Show your work by either showing the algebra steps or by showing how you used Excel to calculate.

Assignment Expectations

  • Answer the assignment questions directly.
  • Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
  • For computational problems, make sure to show your work and explain your steps.

For short answer/short essay questions, make sure to reference your sources of information with both a bibliography and in-text citations.

SUPPLY AND DEMAND

 

Assignment Overview

Before beginning this assignment, make sure you have gone carefully through all of the required readings for this module.  It is very important to carefully absorb the general concepts as well as the numerical examples in the background readings.  For this assignment, you will have to answer some purely conceptual questions, as well as some numerical problems.  For conceptual questions, make sure to thoroughly explain your answers and to cite specific readings from the required background materials to explain your answers.  For numerical problems, make sure to show all of your work and explain how you arrived at your answers (partial credit can be given if you get the final answer wrong but do some of the steps correctly).

Case Assignment

Part A: Conceptual questions

  1. Suppose you own a pet shop.  Your sales are decent but a marketing consultant tells you that you could increase your sales and be able to charge a higher price if you spend some money on local television ads.  If the consultant is right, will advertising lead to an increase in quantity demanded?  Or a shift in the demand curve?  Both?  Neither?  Explain your answer and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings in your answer.
  2. You are the owner of a furniture factory.  You normally produce 100 pieces of furniture a day because that is how much you can produce given the amount of qualified workers in your town and the amount of reasonably priced wood that you can purchase locally.  Then one day you get an order from a large national retail chain who wants to purchase 200 pieces of furniture a day from you.  You are hesitant, as you will have to pay higher wages to get some qualified workers to move to your town.  You also will need to pay higher prices for wood because you will no longer be able to rely solely on local suppliers and will have to spend more on shipping wood from other towns.  But you drive a hard bargain and the retail chain agrees to pay one and a half times your normal price.  Does this situation describe a change in quantity supplied?  A shift in the supply curve?  Both?  Neither? Explain your answer and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings in your answer.
  3. Suppose marijuana has just been legalized in your state.  Nobody in your home town wants to start a marijuana business, as this would be too much of a stigma.  But being an MBA student, you know a good business opportunity when you see one and decide to take a stab.  Shortly after starting up your business, you gain a loyal following of customers and start raking in some steep profits.  However, the local government decides that they want a cut of your profits and starts charging a 20% sales tax on marijuana.  Do you think this would lead to a 20% or greater loss in sales?  Do you think marijuana in this situation would be facing inelastic or elastic demand?  Explain your reasoning, and make sure to cite at least one of the required readings regarding elasticity.

Part B Quantitative Problem

Suppose the demand function for a new smartphone can be expressed as QD =  1000 – 1.5P with QD being quantity demanded and P being price.  The supply function can be expressed as QS = 50 + 2P

Fill out the following table using the above equations:

Price

 

KINDLY FIND ATTACHED PICTURE OF THE TABLE

 

 

Now answer the following questions:

  1. What is the equilibrium price?  You can compute this either using Microsoft Excel, or by using algebra from the equations above and solving for a price where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded. Show your work by either showing the algebra steps or by showing how you used Excel to calculate.
  2. Suppose the supply function changes to 100 + 2P.  What is the new equilibrium? Show your work by either showing the algebra steps or by showing how you used Excel to calculate.

Assignment Expectations

  • Answer the assignment questions directly.
  • Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
  • For computational problems, make sure to show your work and explain your steps.

For short answer/short essay questions, make sure to reference your sources of information with both a bibliography and in-text citations.

Two problems identified in raising mental awareness is funding and stigma/discrimination.

Janette Swindell

           Two problems identified in raising mental awareness is funding and stigma/discrimination.  

           Possible solutions to funding mental awareness programs:

  • Having fund raisers 
  • Have big name stars participate in fund raisers 
  • Work on government funding 
  • Have groups think outside the box 
  • Get big corporations to become involved 

The solutions named above have pros and cons.  In order to have fund raisers, there

needs to be a dedicated person willing to give up their time to basically organize by making hundreds of phone calls, putting together a venue, a group of people willing to volunteer their time, organize tickets, advertising, be responsible for the funds collected, and having the ability to pull the entire event off within the laws of the government and state they are conducting the fund raisers.  On the other hand, having fund raisers allows money to be generated and donated to raising mental awareness which in turn gives people the opportunity to recognize, understand, and benefit from information regarding mental illnesses.  “Mental health awareness campaigns have yielded positive outcomes” (Srivastava, Chatterjee, & Bhat, 2016, p. 131).  Bringing awareness enables families, friends, and communities to have important information that will help others and themselves. 

           Government funding would again take lots of work.  Someone would need to campaign at the local levels to raise awareness and gain support.  Barring all obstacles, petitions would need to be signed, political support would need to be gathered and all the right channels would need to be followed.  This would be a time consuming and long road.  If the government agreed to fund raising awareness of mental illness, information would be available to a greater area of people. “Evidence is emerging to support the belief that poverty and mental illness in developing countries are linked in such a way that when one increases, the other usually increases”  (Patterson, Edwards, & Vakili, 2018, p. 72).  It is imperative that mental health awareness is provided to everyone, even in remote areas.  

           Possible solutions to extinguishing stigma/discrimination:

  • Trained speakers 
  • Workplace trainings 
  • Education in schools 
  • Workshops 
  • Support groups 

The above solutions can assist in raising awareness of mental illnesses and removing the stigma/discrimination that is associated with the subject.  Fear of the unknown can lead someone to hide from the world.  Conducting meetings with trained speakers would be a solution to raising awareness of mental illness.  It would take people that are dedicated, passionate, and be educated in the field, but able to speak in terms everyone can understand.  The speakers would need to be culturally diverse so as not to offend anyone.  To be effective, the speakers would need to go to all parts of the world in order to raise awareness of mental illness in every country.  This would take money and time.  

Workshops are another solution to the problem of raising mental illness awareness.  A booth could be set up in local health fairs, community events, and even at colleges on opening day.  It would enable people to stop by without feeling uncomfortable and request information.  This would take a group of people that are willing to go out to different venues and provide information on mental illnesses.  They would need to be trained in the field but can meet and greet all types of people.  In a study conducted by Jorm, Sawyer, and Gillett (2019) in Australia, workshops to raise awareness of mental illness were successful in getting the information out to the public.  The more a subject is put in the open, the less stigma/discrimination is associated with it.

                                                          References

Jorm, A., Sawyer, M., & Gillett, J. (2012). Australian Rotary Health: a major contributor to mental awareness in Australia. Australasian Psychiatry, 20(4), 319-321. doi:10.1177/1039856212447968

Patterson, J. E., Edwards, T., & Vakili, S. (2018). Global Mental Health: A Call for Increased Awareness and Action for Family Therapists. Family Process, 57, 70–82. doi:10.1111/famp.12281

Srivastava, K., Chatterjee, K., & Bhat, P. S. (2016). Mental health awareness: The Indian scenario. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 25, 131-134.

Do you think that children’s learning styles are dependent upon the type of learning in which children are introduced to?

Do you think that children’s learning styles are dependent upon the type of learning in which children are introduced to?  For example, are children more likely to learn via classical conditioning if their caregivers promote classical conditioning techniques?  Please provide examples to justify your opinion.

Explain whether you think that this is the appropriate correlation or bivariate regression to use for the research question. Why or why not?

Respond to at least one of your colleagues’ posts and comment on the following:

  1. Make recommendations for the design choice.
  2. Explain whether you think that this is the appropriate correlation or bivariate regression to use for the research question. Why or why not?
  3. As a lay reader, were you able to understand the results and their implications? Why or why not?

Suggest another resource related to the colleague’s topic and explain why it would be of interest.

Respond by Day 5 to at least two of your colleagues who chose a different topic in one or more of the following ways:

  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.
  • Share an insight you gained from having read your colleague’s post.
  • Suggest another resource related to the colleague’s topic and explain why it would be of interest.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.

Classmate- KN

Ethical coaching is the ethical practice by professionals used to assist meet objectives and achievements (Lowman, 2012). In this field, there are various strategies and guidelines to achieving specific goals. Three characteristics that are important in succeeding in this profession such as upholding confidentiality of client/sponsor information, showing integrity in all situations, and remaining non-discriminatory to all persons. Along with that, professionals must demonstrate an understanding of the ethical code of conduct and the guidelines for how one must conduct themselves in the workplace (APA, 2010). 

Although ethical consulting and coaching are two separate disciplines, they overlap in regard to the principals and standards that align with those for the American Psychological Association. The principles that are of relevance to each field are stated in the American Psychological Association principles and standards. Integrity should be adopted by all professionals to provide clear and accurate information in coaching, science, and all practices of psychology. Another principle that is of most importance is upholding every person’s rights and dignity by ensuring these are in no way violated or tested (APA, 2010). 

Classmate- AB

The rules by which our lives are lived are founded by our ethical principles while our values govern the way in which we behave as previously learned at the beginning of the course. As ethical consultants in the field of psychology, we must work using a set of principles which guide us toward ethical behaviors. Keeping that in mind, one of the top three characteristics of an ethical consultant or coach involves them being vigilant because they must recognize ethical dilemmas which directly relate to the American Psychological Association (2010) ethical standards section. In addition, coaches and consultants must practice consulting or coaching without causing their clients harm. For consultants, the International Coach Federation (2015) declared their members must protect their clients from potential harm due to the Hippocratic oath. Comparatively, consultants must adhere to the same Hippocratic oath to do no harm and avoid it. Finally, the consultant, as well as the coach, must be deemed as trustworthy by their clients which also directly relate to the American Psychological Association (2010) code of ethics principle of integrity. With that in mind, coaches, according to the International Coach Federation (2015), have several guidelines relating to integrity that must be adhered to while consultants focus on gaining their trustworthiness through ethical characteristics that stimulate and support, etc. the client (Society of Consulting Psychology, n.d.).

According to the International Coach Federation (2015), coaching involves assisting clients through a thought-provoking and creative process. Conversely, according to the Society of Consulting Psychology (n.d.) consulting, in short, involves advising clients effectively through psychological assessments and interventions. Although consulting and coaching are two different fields in psychology, they also overlap with ethical principles and standards due to the International Coach Federation (2015) and the Society of Consulting Psychology (n.d.) codes and principles also following the American Psychological Association (2010) code of ethical standards and principle guidelines due to them adopting most of the American Psychological Association ethical rules and standards policies. Thus, all organizations highlight the importance of refraining from conflict of interest situations, as well as the importance of maintaining confidentiality. In all, whether the psychologist is practicing as a coach or as a consultant, they have a responsibility to do so ethically.