Respond to each of the 5 statement

Question Name two different methods for evaluating evidence. Compare and contrast these two methods.

Statement 1

Two methods for evaluating evidence:

  1. Systemic review: a formal research study that “follows clear, predefined structure to find, assess, and analyze studies that have all tried to answer a similar question” (The PubMed Health, 2018). The steps for systemic review are: 1. Formulating Topic, 2. Developing the systematic review protocol, 3. Finding and assessing individual studies, 4. Synthesizing the body of evidence, 5. Providing a detailed comprehensive final report (The PubMed Health, 2018). Systemic review “objectively summarize large amounts of information, identifying gaps in medical research, and identifying beneficial or harmful interventions which will be useful for clinicians, researchers, and even for public and policymakers” (Gopalakrishnan & Ganeshkumar, 2013).
  2. Meta-analysis: “Statistical analysis carried out to integrate and synthesize findings from completed studies to determine what is known and not known about a particular research area” (Grove, Gray, & Burns, 2015, p.507).

Both methods are “prepared with the aim of capacity building for general practitioners and other primary healthcare professionals in research methodology and day-to-day clinical practice” (Gopalakrishnan & Ganeshkumar, 2013). Some flaws identified by Gopalakrishnan and Ganeshkumar (2013) about both methods are loss of information on important outcomes, inappropriate subgroup analyses, and duplication of publication.

References:

Gopalakrishnan, S., & Ganeshkumar, P. (2013). Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis: Understanding the Best Evidence in Primary Healthcare. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 2(1), 9–14. http://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.109934

Grove, S., Gray, J., Burns, N. (2015). Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145577…

The PubMed Health. (2018). What is a Systematic Review? Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/what-is-a-systematic-review/

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Statement 2

Two methods for evidence evaluation is critical appraisal and meta-analysis. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), a critical appraisal is a literature review of qualitative or quantitative research that evaluates the weaknesses and strengths of a study to determine if the evidence is useful and whether the study results are reliable. Meta-analysis is the review of a combination of related studies to determine the validity of the evidence (Grove et al., 2015). Although both are determining the trustworthiness of the evidence provided in a study, the critical appraisal is looking at the study itself, assessing research methods, adequacy of sample size, and whether it was performed in an unbiased manner; whereas the meta-analysis looks at many different studies, with the same research question determining its validity based on the consistency of the findings (Grove et al., 2015). A personal preference would be to use the Meta–analysis for review because the congruency of the results would prove more reliable and the critical appraisal seems more time consuming.

References

Grove, S., Gray, J., Burns, N. (2015). Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145577…

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Statement 3

There are various methods that researchers use to evaluate evidence. When evaluating evidence it is imperative to ask questions such as: what forms of evidence are more reliable than others, how can one draw accurate conclusions from evidence, and how can the evidence be interpreted reliably.

Meta- analysis and systematic reviews have become increasingly important in healthcare settings. A systemic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of all research studies that address a particular issue. Researchers use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic using a set of specific criteria.

Systemic reviews have specific advantages in which they used methods to eliminate bias, and draw reliable and accurate conclusions. Systemic reviews are increasingly being used as a preferred research method and plays an important role in formulating evidence-based nursing practice. Meta-analysis is a method used for quantitatively integrating the results of multiple or similar studies addressing the same research question.

Both methods help to reduce bias, provide adequate power to demonstrate differences in outcomes and resolves the results of inconsistent studies (Gopalakrishnan & Ganeshkumar, 2013).

Gopalakrishnan, S., & Ganeshkumar, P. (2013). Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: understanding the best evidence in primary healthcare. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 2(1), 9–14. http://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.109934

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Statement 4

Systemic reviews and meta-analysis are two main ways to evaluate evidence in research articles. Often used in combination, these methods help to understand the broad view of research related to the topic. Systemic review focuses on getting specific criteria in order to evaluate the research application while reducing the amount of extraneous data material (Uman, 2011). Systemic review is considered to be the new standard for evaluating evidence since the goal is to accurately ascertain data that is replicable that will lead to the best clinical-making decisions.

Meta-Analysis is another important form of evidence evaluation which is used to assess collective data into one qualitative study. Systemic review often includes the meta-analysis in order to summarize the results to apply to clinical actions or changes (Uman, 2011). Meta-analysis is a more stastical analysis of the data which can be derived from the material gathered in a systemic review. This method may be problematic in the aspect that it lacks the specificity of data that a systemic review may identify. This may lead to skewed results from differences in the subject groups or variables in the study.

Combining these studies helps maximize the application of the data from the studies being assessed. Using both systematic and meta-analysis of the data helps to ensure the results are related to the topic as well as replicable in order to confirm validity.

Uman, L. (2011) Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Journal of the canadian academy of child and adolescant psychiatry 20(1) 57-59. Retreived from

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC30247…

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Statement 5

Systematic review is one of the common methods for evaluating evidence (PubMed Heath Team, 2018). This type of review clearly defines structure. It reviews and responds to a set of inquiries. The purpose of this method is to define facts in research (PubMed Heath Team, 2018). Systematic review enables identification of what is evident and what is unclear. Time lines for this type of review may take many months. This high-quality standard works well in reviews for healthcare because it minimizes bias. The core of this type of study entails factual evidence as well as critical assessment (PubMed Heath Team, 2018).

Meta-analysis is a formal qualitative form of evaluating evidence in literature. It is a statistical procedure that uses results from multiple evidenced based studies to make more broad and accurate conclusions. The outcomes are more precise compared to even the systematic review because it evaluates multiple results. This form of evaluation is the most cited forma of clinical research for this reason (Haidich, 2010).

Haidich, A. B. (2010). Meta-analysis in medical research. Hippokratia, 14(Suppl 1), 29–37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3049418/

PubMed Heath Team (2018). Institute of Medicine is the former name of the US National Academy of Medicine. Retrieved from, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/what-is-a-systematic-review/

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